A Real-Time Haptic/Graphic Demonstration of How Error Augmentation Can Enhance Learning

Document Type

Conference Proceeding



Format of Original

6 p.

Publication Date



Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

Source Publication

Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation

Source ISSN


Original Item ID

doi: 10.1109/ROBOT.2005.1570798


We developed a real-time controller for a 2 degree-of-freedom robotic system using xPC Target. This system was used to investigate how different methods of performance error feedback can lead to faster and more complete motor learning in individuals asked to compensate for a novel visuo-motor transformation (a 30 degree rotation). Four groups of human subjects were asked to reach with their unseen arm to visual targets surrounding a central starting location. A cursor tracking hand motion was provided during each reach. For one group of subjects, deviations from the “ideal” compensatory hand movement (i.e. trajectory errors) were amplified with a gain of 2 whereas another group was provided visual feedback with a gain of 3.1. Yet another group was provided cursor feedback wherein the cursor was rotated by an additional (constant) offset angle. We compared the rates at which the hand paths converged to the steady-state trajectories. Our results demonstrate that error-augmentation can improve the rate and extent of motor learning of visuomotor rotations in healthy subjects. Furthermore, our results suggest that both error amplification and offset-augmentation may facilitate neuro-rehabilitation strategies that restore function in brain injuries such as stroke.


Published as part of the Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, 2005: 4406-4411. DOI.