Document Type




Format of Original

11 p.; 25 cm

Publication Date




Source Publication

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Bioenergetics

Source ISSN


Original Item ID

doi: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2011.11.021; PubMed Central, PMCID: PMC3269517


Ranolazine, an anti-anginal drug, is a late Na+ channel current blocker that is also believed to attenuate fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiratory complex I activity, especially during ischemia. In this study, we investigated if ranolazine's protective effect against cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury is mediated at the mitochondrial level and specifically if respiratory complex I (NADH Ubiquinone oxidoreductase) function is protected. We treated isolated and perfused guinea pig hearts with ranolazine just before 30 min ischemia and then isolated cardiac mitochondria at the end of 30 min ischemia and/or 30 min ischemia followed by 10 min reperfusion. We utilized spectrophotometric and histochemical techniques to assay complex I activity, Western blot analysis for complex I subunit NDUFA9, electron paramagnetic resonance for activity of complex I Fe–S clusters, enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) for determination of protein acetylation, native gel histochemical staining for respiratory supercomplex assemblies, and high pressure liquid chromatography for cardiolipin integrity; cardiac function was measured during IR. Ranolazine treated hearts showed higher complex I activity and greater detectable complex I protein levels compared to untreated IR hearts. Ranolazine treatment also led to more normalized electron transfer via Fe–S centers, supercomplex assembly and cardiolipin integrity. These improvements in complex I structure and function with ranolazine were associated with improved cardiac function after IR. However, these protective effects of ranolazine are not mediated by a direct action on mitochondria, but rather indirectly via cytosolic mechanisms that lead to less oxidation and better structural integrity of complex I.


NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Bioenergetics. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Bioenergetics, Vol. 1817, No. 3 (March 2012): 419–429. DOI. © Elsevier 2012. Used with permission.