Effect of Fine Wire Electrode Insertion on Gait Patterns in Children with Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

Document Type




Format of Original

7 p.

Publication Date




Source Publication

Gait & Posture

Source ISSN


Original Item ID

doi: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.07.030



Fine wire electromyography (EMG) is commonly used for surgical decision making in equinovarus foot deformity. However, this invasive technique may have the unwanted effect of altering the gait of children with cerebral palsy (CP). The purpose of this study was to determine if fine wire insertion into the posterior tibialis muscle affects temporal-spatial parameters and hindfoot kinematics during gait in children with equinovarus secondary to hemiplegic CP.


12 children with hemiplegic CP who presented with an equinovarus foot (mean age 12.5 yrs, four right-sided, eight left-sided) were recruited. Temporal-spatial parameters and 3-D segmental foot and ankle kinematic gait data were collected utilizing standard gait analysis and the Milwaukee Foot Model (MFM). Three representative trials with and without fine wire electrode insertion were compared to determine the effect of electrode placement in the posterior tibialis on temporal spatial-parameters and hindfoot sagittal, coronal and transverse plane kinematic peaks, timing of kinematic peaks, and excursions.


No significant differences in any temporal-spatial or kinematic parameters were observed between “with wire” and “without wire” conditions. Strong correlations were observed among the gait parameters, with the exception of cadence, for the two conditions.


Fine wire insertion into the posterior tibialis had no measurable effect on the gait of individuals with equinovarus secondary to hemiplegic CP. This suggests that the simultaneous collection of segmental foot and ankle kinematics and fine wire EMG data of the posterior tibialis is acceptable for surgical decision making in this patient population.


Gait & Posture, Vol. 37, No. 2 (February 2013): 251–257. DOI: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.07.030.