Smooth Muscle-Protein Translocation and Tissue Function
Format of Original
The Anatomical Record
Original Item ID
doi: 10.1002/ar.22970; PubMed Central: PMCID 4244760
Smooth muscle (SM) tissue is a complex organization of multiple cell types and is regulated by numerous signaling molecules (neurotransmitters, hormones, cytokines, etc.). SM contractile function can be regulated via expression and distribution of the contractile and cytoskeletal proteins, and activation of any of the second messenger pathways that regulate them. Spatial-temporal changes in the contractile, cytoskeletal or regulatory components of SM cells (SMCs) have been proposed to alter SM contractile activity. Ca2+ sensitization/desensitization can occur as a result of changes at any of these levels, and specific pathways have been identified at all of these levels. Understanding when and how proteins can translocate within the cytoplasm, or to-and-from the plasmalemma and the cytoplasm to alter contractile activity is critical. Numerous studies have reported translocation of proteins associated with the adherens junction and G protein-coupled receptor activation pathways in isolated SMC systems. Specific examples of translocation of vinculin to and from the adherens junction and protein kinase C (PKC) and 17 kDa PKC-potentiated inhibitor of myosin light chain phosphatase (CPI-17) to and from the plasmalemma in isolated SMC systems but not in intact SM tissues are discussed. Using both isolated SMC systems and SM tissues in parallel to pursue these studies will advance our understanding of both the role and mechanism of these pathways as well as their possible significance for Ca2+ sensitization in intact SM tissues and organ systems.