A series of aluminum-containing layered double hydroxides (LDHs), containing Mg, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn as the divalent metals, have been prepared by the co-precipitation method and used to prepare nanocomposites of PMMA by in situ bulk polymerization. The additives were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis while the polymer composites were characterized by XRD, transmission electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and cone calorimetry. Polymerization of methyl methacrylate in the presence of these undecenoate LDHs results in composites with enhanced thermal stability. The glass transition temperatures of the composites and the pristine polymers are found to be around 110 °C; this suggests that the presence of these additives has little effect on the polymer. It is found that the additive composition and the dispersion state of LDHs agglomerates in the polymer matrix influence the fire properties of composites as measured by cone calorimetry.