Document Type




Format of Original

6 p.; 26 cm

Publication Date




Source Publication

The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry

Source ISSN



Statement of problem

The effect of toothbrushing on extrinsically stained pressable ceramic materials is unknown.


The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effects of toothbrushing on the shade and surface roughness of extrinsically stained, pressable ceramics.

Material and Methods

Two materials, leucite-based (IPS Empress Esthetic [EE]; Ivoclar Vivadent AG) and lithium disilicate-based ceramic (IPS e.max Press [EP]; Ivoclar Vivadent AG), were studied. For each material, 24 disk-shaped specimens, 10 mm (diameter)×3 mm (height) were fabricated. Three different methods (n=8) of applying extrinsic stains were performed on each material: glazed only (G, control group); stained then glazed (SG); and stained and glazed together (T). The specimens were brushed with a multistation brushing machine under a load of 1.96 N at a rate of 90 strokes per minute with a soft and straight toothbrush (Oral-B #35) and a 1:1 toothpaste and distilled water slurry. Shade and roughness were measured at baseline and at 72, 144, 216, and 288 hours, which is equivalent to 3, 6, 9, and 12 years of simulated toothbrushing for 2 minutes twice a day. A repeated measures ANOVA with staining technique as a fixed factor was used to evaluate shade and roughness (α=.05).


For EE groups, no significant change was found after 12 years of simulated toothbrushing regarding shade and surface roughness, irrespective of staining techniques (P>.05). However, EP groups demonstrated a significant shade change and an increase in surface roughness after 12 years of simulated toothbrushing. Shade change was found to depend on the method of applying stain. For the EP-SG technique, a significant shade change was observed only at the 9- to 12-year interval (P=.047). However, the EP-T technique demonstrated a significant difference in shade between baseline and 3 years (P=.005) and in the 6- to 9-year interval (P=.005). Surface roughness was only significantly affected at baseline and 3 years for the EP-T group (P=.005).


For the shade and surface roughness of the EE groups, no statistically significant difference was found after 12 years of toothbrushing, irrespective of the staining technique. The shade and surface roughness of the EP groups were significantly statistically affected by toothbrushing time; only shade changes were found to depend on technique.


Accepted version. The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, Vol. 115, No. 4 (April 2016): 489-494. DOI. © Elsevier 2016. Used with permission.

NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in The Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, VOL. 115, ISSUE 4, April 2016, DOI.

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