A Current Overview of Materials and Strategies for Potential Use in Maxillofacial Tissue Regeneration
Format of Original
Materials Science and Engineering: C
Tissue regeneration is rapidly evolving to treat anomalies in the entire human body. The production of biodegradable, customizable scaffolds to achieve this clinical aim is dependent on the interdisciplinary collaboration among clinicians, bioengineers and materials scientists. While bone grafts and varying reconstructive procedures have been traditionally used for maxillofacial defects, the goal of this review is to provide insight on all materials involved in the progressing utilization of the tissue engineering approach to yield successful treatment outcomes for both hard and soft tissues. In vitro and in vivo studies that have demonstrated the restoration of bone and cartilage tissue with different scaffold material types, stem cells and growth factors show promise in regenerative treatment interventions for maxillofacial defects. The repair of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc and mandibular bone were discussed extensively in the report, supported by evidence of regeneration of the same tissue types in different medical capacities. Furthermore, in addition to the thorough explanation of polymeric, ceramic, and composite scaffolds, this review includes the application of biodegradable metallic scaffolds for regeneration of hard tissue. The purpose of compiling all the relevant information in this review is to lay the foundation for future investigation in materials used in scaffold synthesis in the realm of oral and maxillofacial surgery.