Erosive Tooth Wear and Consumption of Beverages among Children in the United States
Background/Aim: Experimental studies have identified differences in the effect of physicochemical properties of beverages on the etiology of erosive tooth wear (ETW). Little is known from epidemiological studies about the relationship between ETW and consumption of juices, drinks and milk. This study examined the relationship between the consumption of juices, drinks, milk and ETW in children in the United States. Methods: The National Health and Nutrition Examinations Survey data for 2003–2004 was analyzed. Trained and calibrated examiners used the modified Smith and Knight Tooth Wear Index from a 1998 United Kingdom Adult Health Survey to measure ETW. Beverage consumption collected via a Food Frequency Questionnaire was processed with Diet*Calc software to obtain the average daily consumption frequency for all queried juice categories, milk and carbonated beverages. Survey-weighted descriptive and multivariable analyses were performed. Results: Prevalence of ETW was highest in children aged 18–19 years (56%), males (49%), and lowest in Blacks (31%). Milk and soft drinks (0.85 times a day) and fruit drinks (0.69) were the most consumed products by children. Children with ETW had significantly higher odds of being frequent consumers of apple juice after adjusting for age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Blacks had the highest mean daily apple juice consumption, but the mean difference between those with ETW and those without ETW was not significant. Conclusion: ETW was associated with frequent intake of apple juice, but the mean difference in consumption between groups with ETW versus those without ETW within racial/ethnic groups was not significant.