Maternal Factors Related to Parenting Practices, Developmental Expectations, and Perceptions of Child Behavior Problems
The Journal of Genetic Psychology: Research and Theory on Human Development
Parenting practices of a representative sample of 1,056 urban mothers with very young children were studied via the Parent Behavior Checklist (Fox, 1994) and the Behavior Screening Questionnaire (Richman & Graham, 1971). Potential determinants of parenting practices were also addressed, including maternal age, marital status, education level, number of children living at home, and family socioeconomic status. Less positive parenting practices concerning nurturing and discipline were found among mothers who were younger, had more than one child living at home, were single, had a lower income level, and had lower educational attainment. These mothers also tended to perceive their children as demonstrating more difficult behavior problems. However, the negative influence of some determinants of parenting practices, such as low income, was found to be moderated by the presence of other determinants, such as more education. The present results provide evidence that multiple determinants influence parenting practices among parents of young children.