Effects of sprint training on extrarenal potassium regulation with intense exercise in Type 1 diabetes
Journal of Applied Physiology
Effects of sprint training on plasma K+ concentration ([K+]) regulation during intense exercise and on muscle Na+-K+-ATPase were investigated in subjects with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) under real-life conditions and in nondiabetic subjects(CON). Eight subjects with T1D and seven CON undertook 7 wk of sprint cycling training. Before training, subjects cycled to exhaustion at 130% peak O2 uptake. After training, identical work was performed. Arterialized venous blood was drawn at rest, during exercise, and at recovery and analyzed for plasma glucose, [K+], Na+ concentration ([Na+]), catecholamines, insulin, and glucagon. A vastus lateralis biopsy was obtained before and after training and assayed for Na+-K+-ATPase content ([3H]ouabain binding). Pretraining, Na+-K+-ATPase content and the rise in plasma [K+] (Δ[K+]) during maximal exercise were similar in T1D and CON. However, after 60 min of recovery in T1D, plasma [K+], glucose, and glucagon/insulin were higher and plasma [Na+] was lower than in CON. Training increased Na+-K+-ATPase content and reduced Δ[K+] in both groups (P < 0.05). These variables were correlated in CON (r = –0.65, P < 0.05) but not in T1D. This study showed first that mildly hypoinsulinemic subjects with T1D can safely undertake intense exercise with respect to K+ regulation; however, elevated [K+] will ensue in recovery unless insulin is administered. Second, sprint training improved K+ regulation during intense exercise in both T1D and CON groups; however, the lack of correlation between plasma Δ[K+] and Na+-K+-ATPase content in T1D may indicate different relative contributions of K+-regulatory mechanisms.