Resilience–Recovery Factors in Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Among Female and Male Vietnam Veterans: Hardiness, Postwar Social Support, and Additional Stressful Life Events

Document Type




Format of Original

15 p.

Publication Date



American Psychological Association

Source Publication

Journal of Personality and Social Psychology

Source ISSN



Structural equation modeling procedures were used to examine relationships among several war zone stressor dimensions, resilience-recovery factors, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in a national sample of 1,632 Vietnam veterans (26% women and 74% men). A 9-factor measurement model was specified on a mixed-gender subsample of the data and then replicated on separate subsamples of female and male veterans. For both genders, the structural models supported strong mediation effects for the intrapersonal resource characteristic of hardiness, postwar structural and functional social support, and additional negative life events in the postwar period. Support for moderator effects or buffering in terms of interactions between war zone stressor level and resiliencerecovery factors was minimal.


Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 74, No. 2 (February 1998): 420-434. DOI.

Gary Adams was affiliated with the University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh at the time of publication.