Direct and Indirect Effects of Operations Tempo on Outcomes for Soldiers and Spouses

Document Type




Format of Original

18 p.

Publication Date



American Psychological Association

Source Publication

Military Psychology

Source ISSN



The purpose of this article was to integrate 2 models linking work and family. The first model, coming primarily from the military literature, suggested that working conditions are directly related to outcomes. The second model, found primarily in the civilian literature, suggested that in addition to being directly related, working conditions are also related to outcomes indirectly through work-family conflict (WFC). An integrated model including both direct and indirect relations was developed and then tested using separate samples of soldiers and spouses. Generally, the results support the integrated model in that both direct and indirect relations were found. Across both samples, working conditions associated with operations tempo had a direct relation to Army outcomes and an indirect relation, through WFC, to family outcomes.


Military Psychology, Vol. 17, No. 3 (2005): 229-246. DOI.

Gary Adams was affiliated with University of Wisconsin Oshkosh at the time of publication.