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doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2010.04.069; PubMed Central: PMCID 2920628
ADP influx and ADP phosphorylation may alter mitochondrial free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]m) and consequently mitochondrial bioenergetics by several postulated mechanisms. We tested how [Ca2+]m is affected by H2PO4− (Pi), Mg2+, calcium uniporter activity, matrix volume changes, and the bioenergetic state. We measured [Ca2+]m, membrane potential, redox state, matrix volume, pHm, and O2 consumption in guinea pig heart mitochondria with or without ruthenium red, carboxyatractyloside, or oligomycin, and at several levels of Mg2+ and Pi. Energized mitochondria showed a dose-dependent increase in [Ca2+]m after adding CaCl2 equivalent to 20, 114, and 485 nM extramatrix free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]e); this uptake was attenuated at higher buffer Mg2+. Adding ADP transiently increased [Ca2+]m up to twofold. The ADP effect on increasing [Ca2+]m could be partially attributed to matrix contraction, but was little affected by ruthenium red or changes in Mg2+ or Pi. Oligomycin largely reduced the increase in [Ca2+]m by ADP compared to control, and [Ca2+]m did not return to baseline. Carboxyatractyloside prevented the ADP-induced [Ca2+]m increase. Adding CaCl2 had no effect on bioenergetics, except for a small increase in state 2 and state 4 respiration at 485 nM [Ca2+]e. These data suggest that matrix ADP influx and subsequent phosphorylation increase [Ca2+]m largely due to the interaction of matrix Ca2+ with ATP, ADP, Pi, and cation buffering proteins in the matrix.