Document Type




Format of Original

9 p.

Publication Date



American Concrete Institute

Source Publication

ACI Structural Journal

Source ISSN


Original Item ID

doi: 10.14359/8813


This paper presents the results of a research project that investigated excessive strand end slip observed recently in some prestressed piles. From measurements taken in the field, it is apparent that the problem o excessive initial strand slip is independent of pile shape and size. Strand end slip is evident in piles of different manufacturers in different states in the Southeast. Excessive strand end slip was found in both the top and bottom of the cross section of the piles, although the top portion of the cross section generally exhibited much higher initial slip. Several preventive measures can be adopted to reduce the excessive strand end slip. These preventive measures include: a) proper concrete mixture proportioning to reduce top bar effect; b) use of higher-strength concrete with the lowest possible slump and setting time; c) assessment of the condition of the strands prior to installation to insure excellent bond characteristics; d) gradual release of prestress, with an optimal release sequence; and e) use of adequate vibration to ensure consolidation. The strand end slip measured at five prestressing plants in the Southeast is considerably higher than the allowable end slip and is expected to affect the pile performance. If the strand slip theory is adopted, the strand development length increases substantially due to the excessive strand end slip. A top bar effect factor similar to the one used in reinforced concrete design is recommended. To maintain the excellent quality of precast and prestressed concrete products, manufacturers should adopt a dynamic quality control process that follows the rapid changes in the industry. More tests are necessary to ensure excellent quality, such as the Moustafa or an equivalent test, to assess the bond capabilities of the strands, end slip measurements, and direct measurement of the transfer length. Installation of piles should proceed in a manner to alleviate the top bar effects by placing piles alternately in their best and worst directions.


Published version. ACI Structural Journal, Vol. 97, No. 5 (September 2000): 774-782. DOI. © 2000 American Concrete Institute. Used with permission.