Date of Award

Summer 2013

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)




Clinical Psychology

First Advisor

Franzoi, Stephen

Second Advisor

Oswald, Debra

Third Advisor

Hoelzle, James


Recently, Frost, Franzoi and Oswald (2012) found evidence suggesting that the way individuals evaluate their physical selves, also called body esteem, may have changed over the past quarter century. The findings were particularly strong regarding men's self-evaluations. Because Frost et al.'s (2012) findings focused on the Body Esteem Scale (BES: Franzoi & Shields, 1984), which is a measure that captures dimensions uniquely important to adult self-perception and physical evaluation within a multidimensional and gender-specific framework, one obvious implication of this study is that the BES may need revising in order to remain as current and relevant as possible.

With that goal in mind, a series of principal components analyses of the BES responses of 315 women and 353 men were conducted. Results indicated that an addition of a fourth sexuality component, as well as some item level changes were necessary in order for the BES to retain its cultural validity as a body esteem measure in the 21st century for men and women. Strong internal consistency was demonstrated for each revised subscale. New norms and subscale correlations were also computed. Finally, the associations between the revised BES subscales and measures of validity provided further support that the revised BES measures meaningful and important body constructs for women and men, and should continue to do so for the next several years. Cultural implications reflected in BES item changes, and future directions are discussed.