American Counseling Association
Journal of Counseling & Development
Models of counselor development have become very popular, but empirical research has found differences primarily between beginning graduate students and doctoral interns, in the research described here, a counseling self-efficacy instrument was developed and was used to test hypotheses based on self-efficacy theory and models of counselor development, both of which would make similar predictions about increases in counseling self-efficacy resulting from clinical training and experience. The findings include strong reliability and validity evidence for the instrument and several significantly different groups of participants that correspond roughly to the groups hypothesized in stage models of counselor development.
Melchert, Timothy; Hays, Victoria L.; Wiljanen, Lynn M.; and Kolocek, Ann K., "Testing Models of Counselor Development With a Measure of Counseling Self-Efficacy" (1996). College of Education Faculty Research and Publications. 467.
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