Document Type

Conference Proceeding



Publication Date



Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE)

Source Publication

Proceedings of SPIE 7468, Adaptive Coded Aperture Imaging, Non-Imaging, and Unconventional Imaging Sensor Systems


In order to meet the goals of the Department of Defense (DoD) for smaller and more accurate weapons, numerous projects are currently investigating the miniaturization of weapons and munition fuze components. One of these efforts is to characterize the performance of small detonators. The velocity of the flyer, the key component needed to initiate a detonation sequence, can be measured using a photonic Doppler velocimeter (PDV). The purpose of this research was to develop a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) device that would act as an optimal retroreflective surface for the PDV. Two MEMS solutions were explored: one using the PolyMUMPsTM fabrication process and one in-house fabrication design using silicon on insulator (SOI) wafers. The in-house design consisted of an array of corner reflectors created using an SOI wafer. Each corner reflector consisted of three separate mirror plates which were self-assembled by photoresist pad hinges. When heated to a critical temperature (typically 140-160 °C), the photoresist pads melted and the resulting surface tension caused each mirror to rotate into place. The resulting array of corner reflectors was then coated with a thin layer of gold to increase reflectivity. Despite the successful assembly of a PolyMUMPsTM corner reflector, assembling an array of these reflectors was found to be unfeasible. Although the SOI corner reflector design was completed, these devices were not fabricated in time for testing during this research. However, the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and optical cross section (OCS) of commercially available retroreflective tapes were measured. These results can be used as a baseline comparison for future testing of a fabricated SOI corner reflector array.


Published version. "Retroreflector for photonic Doppler velocimetry," Proceedings of SPIE 7468, Adaptive Coded Aperture Imaging, Non-Imaging, and Unconventional Imaging Sensor Systems, 74680I (24 August 2009). DOI. © 2009 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Used with permission.

Ronald A. Coutu, Jr. was affiliated with Air Force Institute of Technology at the time of publication.

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