Document Type




Format of Original

25 p.

Publication Date



American Marketing Association

Source Publication

Journal of Marketing

Source ISSN


Original Item ID

DOI: 10.1509/jmr.13.0092


Two-thirds of adolescent and young adult smokers become lifetime smokers, and one-half of those lifetime smokers will die from this habit. The authors examine alternative persuasive pathways to thoughts of quitting taken by adolescent and young adult smokers when exposed to graphic visual health warnings on cigarette packages. For adolescent smokers, the authors find that graphic warnings and smoking frequency affect fear, and fear influences negative health beliefs about smoking, ultimately increasing thoughts of quitting. They also find that the graphic warning and a graphic warning × smoking frequency interaction have incremental effects on quit thoughts beyond the effects of fear and negative health beliefs. Using a longitudinal design with a sample of young adult smokers, the authors find support for many of the adolescent smoker findings, particularly the incremental effects of graphicness and its interaction with smoking frequency. These similar results from diverse samples support the use of graphic visual warnings but suggest that effects are attenuated for those who smoke the most. The authors offer implications for countermarketing programs and public health policy.


Published version. Journal of Marketing, Vol. 51, No. 2 (April 2014): 165-183. DOI. © 2014 American Marketing Association. Used with permission.

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