The Heritage and Current Status of the 'Integrative Justice Model' for Marketing to the Poor

Document Type




Publication Date

Summer 2015


Westburn Publishers Ltd

Source Publication

Social Business

Source ISSN



The paper 'Marketing to the poor: A SWOT analysis of the Market Construction Model for engaging impoverished market segments' by Gene R. Laczniak and Nicholas J.C. Santos was originally presented at the London Business School Conference on Corporate Responsibility and Global Business in 2006. Stanley J. Shapiro, Associate Editor of Social Business, invited Laczniak and Santos to write a retrospective commentary on their paper in light of developments since its presentation. Laczniak and Santos began writing the paper over 10 years ago. Their aim was “articulating and theoretically justifying the minimal elements that should be present in market exchange in order to assure fairness and justice for the impoverished partners in exchange activity”, an effort that continues to motivate their current research. The 2006 paper was the “formal beginning” of their exploration of this topic. Building on Kasturi Rangan and Arthur McCaffrey's (2004) 'Market Construction Model' (MCM), Laczniak and Santos significantly expanded the MCM into the 'Integrative Justice Model' (IJM) and have since continued to develop this, for example, their 2011 work connecting the IJM to S-D Logic. They have created principles for ethically dealing with impoverished consumers (Santos & Laczniak, 2012) and introduced the idea of 'transformational justice' (Santos, Laczniak, & Facca-Miess, 2015), with their most recent work (Laczniak & Santos, 2015) addressing the role of major societal institutions in recognising the consumer rights of the poor. These developments, and plans to further elaborate the IJM are discussed in the Commentary, which is followed by the full text of the original paper.


Social Business, Vol. 5, No. 2 (Summer 2015): 89-111. DOI.