Document Type




Publication Date



Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE)

Source Publication

IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement

Source ISSN



The design and performance of the active complex electrode (ACE1) electrical impedance tomography system for single-ended phasic voltage measurements are presented. The design of the hardware and calibration procedures allows for reconstruction of conductivity and permittivity images. Phase measurement is achieved with the ACE1 active electrode circuit which measures the amplitude and phase of the voltage and the applied current at the location at which current is injected into the body. An evaluation of the system performance under typical operating conditions includes details of demodulation and calibration and an in-depth look at insightful metrics, such as signal-to-noise ratio variations during a single current pattern. Static and dynamic images of conductivity and permittivity are presented from ACE1 data collected on tank phantoms and human subjects to illustrate the system's utility.


Accepted version. IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 68, No. 9 (September 2019): 3137-3150. DOI. © 2019 Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Used with permission.

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