Format of Original
University of Houston
Houston Journal of Mathematics
For each positive ordinal α, the reflexive and transitive binary relation of α-dominance between compacta was first defined in our paper [Mapping properties of co-existentially closed continua, Houston J. Math., 31 (2005), 1047-1063] using the ultracopower construction. Here we consider the important special case α =2, and show that any Peano compactum 2-dominated by a dendrite is itself a dendrite (with the same being true for topological graphs and trees). We also characterize the topological graphs that 2-dominate arcs (resp., simple closed curves) as those that have cut points of order 2 (resp., those that are not trees).
Bankston, Paul, "Dendrites, Topological Graphs, and 2-Dominance" (2009). Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science Faculty Research and Publications. 141.