Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Pulmonary ventilation (V̇I) in awake and sleeping goats does not change when antagonists to several excitatory G protein-coupled receptors are dialyzed unilaterally into the ventral respiratory column (VRC). Concomitant changes in excitatory neuromodulators in the effluent mock cerebral spinal fluid (mCSF) suggest neuromodulatory compensation. Herein, we studied neuromodulatory compensation during dialysis of agonists to inhibitory G protein-coupled or ionotropic receptors into the VRC. Microtubules were implanted into the VRC of goats for dialysis of mCSF mixed with agonists to either μ-opioid (DAMGO) or GABAA (muscimol) receptors. We found: (1) V̇I decreased during unilateral but increased during bilateral dialysis of DAMGO, (2) dialyses of DAMGO destabilized breathing, (3) unilateral dialysis of muscimol increased V̇I, and (4) dialysis of DAMGO decreased GABA in the effluent mCSF. We conclude: (1) neuromodulatory compensation can occur during altered inhibitory neuromodulator receptor activity, and (2) the mechanism of compensation differs between G protein-coupled excitatory and inhibitory receptors and between G protein-coupled and inotropic inhibitory receptors.