Date of Award

Spring 1953

Degree Type

Thesis - Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)




One of the major problems in forest entomology involves the institution of quantitative insect surveys. These surveys form the basis for control measure recommendations. They are reliable to the extent that the standards of classification for the various population levels represent the true population dispersion of the insect. Current Saratoga spittlebug sampling methods take into consideration three criteria: (a) twig mortality, (b) feeding injury on the trees, (c) nymphal populations. Weaknesses in this sampling method stem from a lack of basic research concerning the population dynamics of the insect. The degree of Saratoga spittlebug feeding injury on red pine is proportional to the level of the adult population. For this reason, feeding puncture density can be used as a criterion in a population survey. Before, however, this factor can be used with confidence, the distribution of the feeding injury on the various sampling universes of the tree must be determined. The study reported herein is an investigation of the distribution of saratoga spittlebug feeding injury on red pine. Also included are observations on the diapausing Saratoga spittlebug egg.



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