Date of Award

Summer 1968

Document Type

Thesis - Restricted

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Biomedical Engineering

First Advisor

Horgan, James D.


The blood circulation of the mammalian physiology is a ramification of the diffusion between intracellular fluid and seawater that provided transport to the environment for the earliest living organisms. With the increasing complexity or cellular organization, the problem of transportation be it of oxygen, of nutrient, of heat, or of information, has been met with the evolution of a complex vascular system which provides surface area, remote distribution, and the possibility of differential distribution. Diffusion has been augmented by the orderly and positive flow produced by the adaptation of smooth muscle in the vasoulature. Active pumping in the modern mammalian system is generally ascribed to the heart; however, active muscular effort is exerted throughout. The dependence of organisms on the presence and efficiency of their circulation is so marked that multiple and redundant controls have been developed, and sometimes superceded, in the evolutionary process. There have been definite tendencies toward the minimization of normal energy expenditure, while, in order to provide for emergencies, great numbers or controllable mechanisms have been added...



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