Functional Stability of Transfemoral Amputee Gait Using the 3R80 and Total Knee 2000 Prosthetic Knee Units

Document Type




Format of Original

4 p.

Publication Date



Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.

Source Publication

Journal of Prosthetics & Orthotics

Source ISSN


Original Item ID

doi: 10.1097/JPO.0b013e318195b917


Prosthetic knee designs have become extremely sophisticated compared to early constant friction single axis mechanisms. Today, prosthetists and physicians have a wide variety of components to choose from for their transfemoral amputee patients. Unfortunately, there are little quantitative data comparing the performance of different types of prosthetic components, and prosthetic prescription is often based on empirical knowledge and experience, rather than objective comparison of prosthetic designs. This study used gait analysis to objectively evaluate the stability characteristics of two types of prosthetic knee designs, the polycentric Total Knee 2000 (Ossur, Aliso Viejo, CA) and the single axis 3R80 stance control knee (Otto Bock Healthcare, Minneapolis, MN). Five healthy, active transfemoral amputees participated in this study by completing two gait analysis sessions, one with the Total Knee 2000 and one with the 3R80. At the end of each session, subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire for comparison of their subjective preferences with the objective biomechanical measures from the gait analysis. Kinematic and kinetic gait data were collected. Stride and temporal parameters (i.e., velocity, cadence, stride length, step length, stance and swing phase durations, and single and double support durations), joint angles and moments were computed from the Vicon data. A within subjects statistical analysis was then conducted, using repeated measures ANOVA, to determine if there were significant differences in performance between the two knee designs. The stride and temporal parameters computed in this study indicated that the Total Knee 2000 demonstrated a high degree of overall stability compared to the 3R80. The differences in inherent mechanical stability in the Total Knee 2000 and the 3R80 resulted in different calculated hip moments. The corresponding required hip moments indicated that the relative stability of the two knee designs changed throughout the gait cycle due to the polycentric nature of the Total Knee 2000. Specifically, the Total Knee 2000 was found to be less stable than the 3R80 in early stance and more stable than the 3R80 in mid- and late-stance. In addition to the biomechanical evidence of increased stability with the Total Knee 2000, the responses to the subjective questionnaires indicated that most subjects felt more stable and more confident bearing weight on the Total Knee 2000 than the 3R80.


Journal of Prosthetics & Orthotics, Vol. 21, No. 1 (January 2009): 18-31. DOI.