Document Type




Format of Original

9 p.

Publication Date




Source Publication


Source ISSN


Original Item ID

doi: 10.1002/syn.21772; PubMed Central: PMCID 4309754


In the central nervous system, cystine import in exchange for glutamate through system xc- is critical for the production of the antioxidant glutathione by astrocytes, as well as the maintenance of extracellular glutamate. Therefore, regulation of system xc- activity affects multiple aspects of cellular physiology and may contribute to disease states. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuronally derived peptide that has already been demonstrated to modulate multiple aspects of glutamate signaling suggesting PACAP may also target activity of cystine–glutamate exchange via system xc-. In this study, 24-h treatment of primary cortical cultures containing neurons and glia with PACAP concentration-dependently increased system xc- function as measured by radiolabeled cystine uptake. Furthermore, the increase in cystine uptake was completely abolished by the system xc- inhibitor, (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine (CPG), attributing increases in cystine uptake specifically to system xc- activity. Time course and quantitative PCR results indicate that PACAP signaling may increase cystine–glutamate exchange by increasing expression of xCT, the catalytic subunit of system xc-. Furthermore, the potentiation of system xc- activity by PACAP occurs via a PKA-dependent pathway that is not mediated by the PAC1R, but rather the shared vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor VPAC1R. Finally, assessment of neuronal, astrocytic, and microglial-enriched cultures demonstrated that only astrocyte-enriched cultures exhibit enhanced cystine uptake following both PACAP and VIP treatment. These data introduce a novel mechanism by which both PACAP and VIP regulate system xc- activity.


Accepted version. Synapse, Vol. 68, No. 12 (December 2014): 604-612. This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: "Augmented Cystine–Glutamate Exchange by Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-activating Polypeptide Signaling via the VPAC1 Receptor," which has been published in final form at DOI. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for self-archiving. © Wiley 2014. Used with permission.

Included in

Neurosciences Commons