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Journal of School Counseling

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A three-page questionnaire was modified to a one-page format. Questionnaires were administered in classroom groups to 300 middle school students. Classrooms were randomly divided into two groups, with one group receiving the original three-page format and the other receiving a single-page version of the same questionnaire. The visual layout of the two versions was different, and included variations in font, placement of response options, and spacing. Item non-response was greater for the single-page format. No statistically significant differences were detected between response patterns or internal consistency of the two versions of the questionnaire. Implications for school counselors are discussed.


Published version. Journal of School Counseling, Vol. 5, No. 12 (2007): 1-19. Publisher Link. © Montana 2007. Used with permission.

Francesca López was affiliated with the University of Arizona at time of publication.

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