Document Type


Publication Date

Fall 2003

Source Publication

Communication Disorders Quarterly

Source ISSN



In the United States, more than 2 million children in Grades pre-K through 6 speak Spanish as their primary language. Approximately 50% of these students receive academic instruction in Spanish. This tutorial provides research-based recommendations for presenting phonological awareness tasks to children who receive literacy instruction in Spanish. The authors also discuss how phonological awareness development may differ between monolingual children learning Spanish and monolingual children learning English, and the implications of these differences for choosing appropriate phonological awareness tasks for Spanish speakers.


Accepted version. Communication Disorders Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 1 (Fall 2003): 13-22. DOI. © SAGE Publications 2003. Used with permission.

Brenda Gorman was affiliated with the University of Texas at Austin at the time of publication.