Date of Award

Summer 2017

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)



First Advisor

Liu, Dawei

Second Advisor

Ahuja, Bhoomika

Third Advisor

Nimeri, Ghada


Introduction: Arch length discrepancy and cephalometric analysis are critical components of orthodontic treatment planning. Both have direct effects on the decision to extract teeth or not and treatment mechanics as well. Visual approximation is the most common method used to analyze arch length discrepancy among practitioners. Current trends show a decrease in the amount of orthodontists completing a cephalometric analysis. Previous studies have shown a tendency for orthodontists to overestimate the degree of crowding when visually approximating on dental casts. No previous study has assessed the ability to visually approximate cephalometric angle measurements. The purpose of this survey was to determine the accuracy of orthodontists to visually approximate cephalometric angular measurements and arch length discrepancy using occlusal clinical photos Methods and Materials: Fifty-four orthodontic residents and clinicians were recruited in this project and completed a survey that included a section on demographics, 3 upper and lower occlusal photos of 3 orthodontic cases, and 3 cases of traced cephalograms. Results: An assessment of the effects of demographics on crowding and cephalometric assessment were done with one-way ANOVA and Chi-Square tests, respectively. No clear associations between any demographics and results were found. Results showed a trend to overestimate crowding. Cephalometric responses did not have a high level of accuracy. Conclusions: On average, orthodontists overestimated all arch length discrepancy measurements. Overall, orthodontists were not accurate at approximating cephalometric measurements, with a total of 50% choosing the correct measurement range.

Available for download on Tuesday, July 10, 2018