Date of Award


Degree Type

Bachelors Essay

Degree Name

Bachelor of Arts (BA)



First Advisor

William M. Magee


The making of American institutions and the making of American character, can hardly be thought of as distinct processes, but are two aspects of one process. The one cannot be understood apart from the other. Schools have always occupied a position midway between church and state. In the early days they were affected more strongly by ecclesiastical considerations, in more recent times, by considerations more political. Among the schools too, the high schools hold an intermediate position. They have been, and are influenced by educational institutions above and below them. Speaking in a general way, secondary education is an education somewhat higher than that gained in the elementary schools, and lower than that of institutions authorized to grant academic degrees. Should we define secondary education thus, we find no clean-cut boundaries, but the limits of such an education are uncertain and variable. Standards change; the standard of one generation is not that of another. Some of our high schools of the present day, offer a more extensive course of study, than did our leading colleges of a century ago. On the other hand, our elementary schools of today are encroaching on the work formerly done in the high school and secondary work is thus begun two or three years earlier than in years gone by. Thus we find our secondary schools wedged in between the elementary school and the college, and consequently the education commonly called secondary has been cut off at both ends, forcing a course upon us, much shorter than that found in other leading culture lands.


A Thesis Submitted to Marquette University in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Bachelor of Philosophy

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