Date of Award


Degree Type

Bachelors Essay

Degree Name

Bachelor of Science (BS)



First Advisor

John R. Koch

Second Advisor

George E. Hermann

Third Advisor

Herbert Heinrich


The significance of ion concentrations has been the subject of many investigations during the last few years. The results obtained have demonstrated without question the unlimited possibilities existing for laboratory and industrial applications of ion concentration measurements. It has been shown in many instances biological activity, fermentation, and filtration are influenced to a large extent by variations in the H-ion concentration. In addition, the way is open for improved control and accuracy in the many neutralization problems encountered in the laboratory. The lack of suitable electrodes has greatly retarded the practical applications of H-ion measurements to plant industrial problems. The common system employed for H-ion measurements, is to have a platinized platinum electrode over which hydrogen gas bubbles, dipped into the solution of which the H-ion concentration is to be determined. The calomek electrode being used as the reference electrode.

In this thesis the writer studied and experimented with electrodes made of various metals, substituted them for the platinized platinum electrodes, and determined their activity when used in this capacity.


A Bachelor's Essay submitted to the Faculty of the Liberal Art's College, Marquette University, in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science

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Chemistry Commons