Document Type




Format of Original

13 p.; 25 cm

Publication Date




Source Publication

Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Bioenergetics

Source ISSN


Original Item ID

doi: 10.1016/j.bbabio.2011.11.011; PubMed Central, PMCID: PMC3269543


Modulation of mitochondrial free Ca2 + ([Ca2 +]m) is implicated as one of the possible upstream factors that initiates anesthetic-mediated cardioprotection against ischemia–reperfusion (IR) injury. To unravel possible mechanisms by which volatile anesthetics modulate [Ca2 +]m and mitochondrial bioenergetics, with implications for cardioprotection, experiments were conducted to spectrofluorometrically measure concentration-dependent effects of isoflurane (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 mM) on the magnitudes and time-courses of [Ca2 +]m and mitochondrial redox state (NADH), membrane potential (ΔΨm), respiration, and matrix volume. Isolated mitochondria from rat hearts were energized with 10 mM Na+- or K+-pyruvate/malate (NaPM or KPM) or Na+-succinate (NaSuc) followed by additions of isoflurane, 0.5 mM CaCl2 (≈ 200 nM free Ca2 + with 1 mM EGTA buffer), and 250 μM ADP. Isoflurane stepwise: (a) increased [Ca2 +]m in state 2 with NaPM, but not with KPM substrate, despite an isoflurane-induced slight fall in ΔΨm and a mild matrix expansion, and (b) decreased NADH oxidation, respiration, ΔΨm, and matrix volume in state 3, while prolonging the duration of state 3 NADH oxidation, respiration, ΔΨm, and matrix contraction with PM substrates. These findings suggest that isoflurane's effects are mediated in part at the mitochondrial level: (1) to enhance the net rate of state 2 Ca2 + uptake by inhibiting the Na+/Ca2 + exchanger (NCE), independent of changes in ΔΨm and matrix volume, and (2) to decrease the rates of state 3 electron transfer and ADP phosphorylation by inhibiting complex I. These direct effects of isoflurane to increase [Ca2 +]m, while depressing NCE activity and oxidative phosphorylation, could underlie the mechanisms by which isoflurane provides cardioprotection against IR injury at the mitochondrial level.


NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Bioenergetics. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Biochimica et Biophysica Acta: Bioenergetics, Vol. 1817, No. 3 (March 2012): 453–465. DOI. © 2012 Elsevier. Used with permission.