Human Gait and Clinical Movement Analysis
Contribution to Book
Wiley Encyclopedia of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Human locomotion is an acquired yet complex behavior requiring little thought during routine activities. It involves the integration of intricate sensory information within the nervous system, resulting in motor commands to control muscle contraction, and subsequent joint movement. Nevertheless, the understanding of the development of coordinated gait activity is lacking, despite numerous and profound advances in science and technology. As such, the quest for knowledge in the field of Human Motion Analysis pertaining to normal and pathological gait poses a challenge to various disciplines, such as biomechanical engineering, orthopedics, physical medicine and rehabilitation, kinesiology, physical therapy, and sports medicine. This manuscript address Human Motion Analysis with a perspective on its evolutionary development, its present status, and a forecast of its future. A representation of the physiological basis of locomotion and some relevant anatomical terminology and gait-related characteristics and terminology is also included. The article contains a substantial coverage of gait analysis methodologies and systems, with emphasis on systems' accuracy and reliability. A delineation of biomechanical modeling of gait data, including ground reaction forces, plantar pressures, kinematics, kinetics, dynamic electromyography, and energy expenditure is also presented. Additionally, a section on foot and ankle motion analysis is provided. The manuscript concludes by addressing clinical interpretation and decision making.