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Source Publication

Gait & Posture

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Kinematic variability of the foot and ankle segments exists during ambulation among individuals with pes planovalgus (PPV) secondary to cerebral palsy (CP). Clinicians have previously recognized such variability through classification schemes to identify subgroups of individuals, but have been unable to identify kinematic foot types.

Research question

The purpose of this work was to identify kinematic foot types among children with PPV secondary to CP using 3-dimensional multi-segment foot and ankle kinematics during gait as inputs for principal component analysis (PCA) and K-means cluster analysis.


In a single assessment session, multi-segment foot and ankle kinematics using the Milwaukee Foot Model (MFM) were collected in 31 children/adolescents with pes planovalgus (49 feet) and 16 typically developing (TD) children/adolescents (31 feet). PCA was used as a data reduction technique on 34 kinematic variables. K-means cluster analysis was performed on the identified principal components (PCs) and one-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) was done to determine the effect of subgroup membership on PC scores.


The PCA reduced the kinematic variables to seven PCs which accounted for 91% of the total variance. Six distinct kinematic foot types were identified by the cluster analysis. The foot types showed unique kinematic characteristics in both the hindfoot and forefoot.


This study provides further evidence of kinematic variability in the foot and ankle during ambulation associated with pes planovalgus secondary to CP. The specific contributions of the hindfoot and forefoot would not have been detected using a single segment foot model. The identification of kinematic foot types with unique foot and ankle characteristics has the potential to improve treatment since patients within a foot type are likely to benefit from similar intervention(s).


Accepted version. Gait & Posture, Vol. 68 (February 2019): 430-436. DOI. © 2019 Elsevier B.V. Used with permission.

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