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Nature Publishing Group

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Scientific Reports

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We report a nonconcurrent dual-modality fiber-optic microendoscope (named SmartME) that integrates quantitative diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and high-resolution fluorescence imaging (FLI) into a smartphone platform. The FLI module has a spatial resolution of ~3.5 µm, which allows the determination of the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio (N/C) of epithelial tissues. The DRS has a spectral resolution of ~2 nm and can measure the total hemoglobin concentration (THC) and scattering properties of epithelial tissues with mean errors of 4.7% and 6.9%, respectively, which are comparable to the errors achieved with a benchtop spectrometer. Our preliminary in vivo studies from a single healthy human subject demonstrate that the SmartME can noninvasively quantify the tissue parameters of normal human oral mucosa tissues, including labial mucosa tissue, gingival tissue, and tongue dorsum tissue. The THCs of the three oral mucosa tissues are significantly different from each other (p ≤ 0.003). The reduced scattering coefficients of the gingival and labial tissues are significantly different from those of the tongue dorsum tissue (p < 0.001) but are not significantly different from each other. The N/Cs for all three tissue types are similar. The SmartME has great potential to be used as a portable, cost-effective, and globally connected tool to quantify the THC and scattering properties of tissues in vivo.


Published version. Scientific Reports, Vol. 9 (October 31, 2019): 15713. DOI. © 2019 The Authors. Published by Nature Publishing Group. Used with permission.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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