Scan2Drawing: Use of Deep Learning for As-Built Model Landscape Architecture

Document Type


Publication Date



American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE)

Source Publication

Journal of Construction Engineering and Management

Source ISSN


Original Item ID

DOI: 10.1061/JCEMD4.COENG-13077


This paper presents an innovative and fully automatic solution of generating as-built computer-aided design (CAD) drawings for landscape architecture (LA) with three dimensional (3D) reality data scanned via drone, camera, and LiDAR. To start with the full pipeline, 2D feature images of ortho-image and elevation-map are converted from the reality data. A deep learning-based light convolutional encoder–decoder was developed, and compared with U-Net (a binary segmentation model), for image pixelwise segmentation to realize automatic site surface classification, object detection, and ground control point identification. Then, the proposed elevation clustering and segmentation algorithms can automatically extract contours for each instance from each surface or object category. Experimental results showed that the developed light model achieved comparable results with U-Net in landing pad segmentation with average intersection over union (IoU) of 0.900 versus 0.969. With the proposed data augmentation strategy, the light model had a testing pixel accuracy of 0.9764 and mean IoU of 0.8922 in the six-class segmentation testing task. Additionally, for surfaces with continuous elevation changes (i.e., ground), the developed algorithm created contours only have an average elevation difference of 1.68 cm compared to dense point clouds using drones and image-based reality data. For objects with discrete elevation changes (i.e., stair treads), the generated contours accurately represent objects’ elevations with zero difference using light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. The contribution of this research is to develop algorithms that automatically transfer the scanned LA scenes to contours with real-world coordinates to create as-built computer-aided design (CAD) drawings, which can further assist building information modeling (BIM) model creation and inspect the scanned LA scenes with augmented reality. The optimized parameters for the developed algorithms are analyzed and recommended for future applications.


Journal of Construction Engineering and Management, Vol. 149, No. 5 (May 2023). DOI.