Polymer Degradation and Stability
The flame retardancy and thermal stability of ammonium polyphosphate/tripentaerythritol (APP/TPE) intumescent flame retarded polystyrene composites (PS/IFR) combined with organically-modified layered inorganic materials (montmorillonite clay and zirconium phosphate), nanofiber (multiwall carbon nanotubs), nanoparticle (Fe2O3) and nickel catalyst were evaluated by cone calorimetry, microscale combustion calorimetry (MCC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Cone calorimetry revealed that a small substitution of IFR by most of these fillers (≤2%) imparted substantial improvement in flammability performance. The montmorillonite clay exhibited the highest efficiency in reducing the peak heat release rate of PS/IFR composite, while zirconium phosphate modified with C21H26NClO3S exhibited a negative effect. The yield and thermal stability of the char obtained from TGA correlated well with the reduction in the peak heat release rate in the cone calorimeter. Since intumescence is a condensed-phase flame process, the MCC results showed features different from those obtained from the cone calorimeter.
Lu, Hongdian and Wilkie, Charles A., "Study on Intumescent Flame Retarded Polystyrene Composites with Improved Flame Retardancy" (2010). Chemistry Faculty Research and Publications. 34.