Here, we report the NMR solution structures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) thioredoxin C in both oxidized and reduced states, with discussion of structural changes that occur in going between redox states. The NMR solution structure of the oxidized TrxC corresponds closely to that of the crystal structure, except in the C-terminal region. It appears that crystal packing effects have caused an artifactual shift in the α4 helix in the previously reported crystal structure, compared with the solution structure. On the basis of these TrxC structures, chemical shift mapping, a previously reported crystal structure of the M. tuberculosis thioredoxin reductase (not bound to a Trx) and structures for intermediates in the E. coli thioredoxin catalytic cycle, we have modeled the complete M. tuberculosis thioredoxin system for the various steps in the catalytic cycle. These structures and models reveal pockets at the TrxR/TrxC interface in various steps in the catalytic cycle, which can be targeted in the design of uncompetitive inhibitors as potential anti-mycobacterial agents, or as chemical genetic probes of function.