Document Type




Format of Original

8 p.

Publication Date



American Chemical Society

Source Publication

Analytical Chemistry

Source ISSN


Original Item ID

DOI: 10.1021/ac5012987


Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) have been shown to have a significant effect on the redox potentials of compounds such as 1,4-dinitrobenzene (DNB), which can be reduced in two one-electron steps. The most noticeable effect is that the two one-electron waves in acetonitrile collapsed to a single two-electron wave in a RTIL such as butylmethyl imidazolium-BF4 (BMImBF4). In order to probe this effect over a wider range of mixed-molecular-solvent/RTIL solutions, the reduction process was studied using UV–vis spectroelectrochemistry. With the use of spectroelectrochemistry, it was possible to calculate readily the difference in E°’s between the first and second electron transfer (ΔE12° = E1° – E2°) even when the two one-electron waves collapsed into a single two-electron wave. The spectra of the radical anion and dianion in BMImPF6 were obtained using evolving factor analysis (EFA). Using these spectra, the concentrations of DNB, DNB–•, and DNB2– were calculated, and from these concentrations, the ΔE12° values were calculated. Significant differences were observed when the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (NTf2) anion replaced the PF6 anion, leading to an irreversible reduction of DNB in BMImNTf2. The results were consistent with the protonation of DNB2–, most likely by an ion pair between DNB2– and BMIm+, which has been proposed by Minami and Fry. The differences in reactivity between the PF6 and NTf2 ionic liquids were interpreted in terms of the tight versus loose ion pairing in RTILs. The results indicated that nanostructural domains of RTILs were present in a mixed-solvent system.


Accepted version. Analytical Chemistry. Vol. 86, No. 13 (July 1, 2014): 6617-6625. DOI. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Used with permission.

Included in

Chemistry Commons