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Direct square-wave and cyclic voltammetric electrochemical examination of the yeast iso-1-cytochrome c Phe82His/Cys102Ser variant revealed the intricacies of redox driven changes in axial coordination, concomitant with intramolecular rearrangement. Electrochemical methods are ideally suited for such a redox study, since they provide a direct and quantitative visualization of specific dynamic events. For the iso-1-cytochrome c Phe82His/Cys102Ser variant, square-wave voltammetry showed that the primary species in the reduced state is the Met80-Fe2+-His18 coordination form, while in the oxidized state the His82-Fe3+-His18 form predominates. The addition or removal of an electron to the appropriate form of this variant serves as a switch to a new molecular form of the cytochrome. Using the 2 × 2 electrochemical mechanism, simulations were done for the cyclic voltammetry experiments at different scan rates. These, in turn, provided relative rate constants for the intramolecular rearrangement/ligand exchange and the equilibrium redox potentials of the participating coordination forms:  kb,AC = 17 s-1 for Met80-Fe3+-His18 → His82-Fe3+-His18 and kf,BD > 10 s-1 for His82-Fe2+-His18 → Met80-Fe2+-His18; E0‘ = 247 mV for Met80-Fe3+/2+-His18 couple, E0‘ = 47 mV for His82-Fe3+/2+-His18 couple, and E0‘ = 176 mV for the cross-reaction couple, His82-Fe3+-His18 + e- → Met80-Fe2+-His18. Thermodynamic parameters, including the entropy of reaction, ΔS0Rxn, were determined for the net reduction/rearrangement reaction, His82-Fe3+-His18 + e- → Met80-Fe2+-His18, and compared to those for wild-type cytochrome, Met80-Fe3+-His18 + e- → Met80-Fe2+-His18. For the Phe82His variant mixed redox couple, ΔS0Rxn = −80 J/mol·K compared to ΔS0Rxn = −52 J/mol·K for the wild-type cyt c couple without rearrangement. Comparison of these entropies indicates that the oxidized His82-Fe3+-His18 form is highly disordered. It is proposed that this high level of disorder facilitates rapid rearrangement to Met80-Fe2+-His18 upon reduction.


Accepted version. Biochemistry, Vol. 37, No. 38 (September 1, 1998): 13091-13101. DOI. © 1998 American Chemical Society. Used with permission.

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