An Analytical Method for Detecting Toxic Metal Cations Using Cyclotriveratrylene Derivative Capped Gold Nanoparticles
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Cyclotriveratrylene-oxime (CTV-oxime) derivatives that terminate with a dithiolate linker were synthesized enabling the supramolecular scaffold to adhere to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with the bowl-shaped cavity of the CTV scaffold exposed for utilization in host–guest chemistry. Exposure of these CTV functionalized AuNPs to varying concentrations of di- and trivalent metal cations resulted in the formation of large CTV-AuNP polymeric clusters and an accompanying a shift in the plasmon resonance. These interactions between the CTV-AuNPs and the metal cations in solution provides proof-of-concept that supramolecular functionalized AuNPs can be used as a simple and straightforward, on-site detection system for toxic metal cations in solution. The order of binding affinity of the metals studied based on observed Kd values is Cu2+ > Zn2+ > Pb2+ > Hg2+ > Eu3+ > Cd2+.