Charge Delocalization in Self-Assembled Mixed-Valence Aromatic Cation Radicals
Format of Original
American Chemical Society
The spontaneous assembly of aromatic cation radicals (D+•) with their neutral counterpart (D) affords dimer cation radicals (D2+•). The intermolecular dimeric cation radicals are readily characterized by the appearance of an intervalence charge-resonance transition in the NIR region of their electronic spectra and by ESR spectroscopy. The X-ray crystal structure analysis and DFT calculations of a representative dimer cation radical (i.e., the octamethylbiphenylene dimer cation radical) have established that a hole (or single positive charge) is completely delocalized over both aromatic moieties. The energetics and the geometrical considerations for the formation of dimer cation radicals is deliberated with the aid of a series of cyclophane-like bichromophoric donors with drastically varied interplanar angles between the cofacially arranged aryl moieties. X-ray crystallography of a number of mixed-valence cation radicals derived from monochromophoric benzenoid donors established that they generally assemble in 1D stacks in the solid state. However, the use of polychromophoric intervalence cation radicals, where a single charge is effectively delocalized among all of the chromophores, can lead to higher-order assemblies with potential applications in long-range charge transport. As a proof of concept, we show that a single charge in the cation radical of a triptycene derivative is evenly distributed on all three benzenoid rings and this triptycene cation radical forms a 2D electronically coupled assembly, as established by X-ray crystallography.