Molecular Structures of the Metastable Charge-Transfer Complexes of Benzene (and Toluene) With Bromine as the Pre-Reactive Intermediates in Electrophilic Aromatic Bromination
Royal Society of Chemistry
New Journal of Chemistry
Successful crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analyses of the highly metastable (1∶1) complexes of bromine with benzene and toluene establish the unique (localized) structure B that differs in notable ways from the long-accepted (delocalized) structure A. Furthermore, we demonstrate the (highly structured) charge-transfer complexes [C6H6,Br2] and [CH3C6H5,Br2] to be the pre-reactive intermediates that are converted (via an overall Br+ transfer) to the Wheland intermediates in electrophilic aromatic bromination. The role of the dative ion pairs [C6H6˙+ Br2˙−] and [CH3C6H5˙+ Br2˙−] in the rate-limiting activation processes is underscored.