Document Type




Format of Original

17 p.

Publication Date



Royal Society of Chemistry

Source Publication

Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology

Source ISSN



Waterborne viruses are widespread and persistent in the environment. Coagulation is an effective process for mitigating viruses in drinking water. This review examines recent studies of virus mitigation by coagulation processes in the context of the latest scientific advances. Virus sorption is impacted by electrostatic forces, as well as the hydrophobic effect, steric hindrance, hydrodynamics and interactions with the water matrix. Organic matter in the water may hinder or enhance sorption, depending on virus structure and environmental factors. In addition to physical separation in flocs, coagulation processes have been shown to inactivate viruses. This review evaluates reports of virus inactivation due to coagulation processes from both a process and experimental perspective. The use of bacteriophages as surrogates for human viruses is discussed, and future research needs relevant to virus coagulation are identified.


Accepted version. Environmental Science: Water Research & Technology, Vol. 2, No. 3 (May 2016): 443-459. DOI. © 2016 Royal Society of Chemistry. Used with permission.

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