Document Type




Publication Date



Water Environment Federation

Source Publication

Water Environment Research

Source ISSN



Nutrient recovery from municipal wastewater was evaluated using anion exchange media loaded with hydrated ferric oxide (HFO) and copper (Cu2+) (Dow‐HFO‐Cu resin) to selectively capture phosphate, followed by clinoptilolite for ammonium removal and recovery. Nutrients were concentrated in the regenerants and recovered as precipitated struvite. Media exchange capacity after multiple ion exchange cycles was determined using permeate from an anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) treating synthetic or actual municipal wastewater from a full‐scale water reclamation facility. Regeneration through five ion exchange cycles using relatively low concentration regenerant solution (2% NaCl and 0.5% NaOH) resulted in the highest phosphate exchange capacity and phosphate recovery. This regenerant also provided the most consistent ammonium recovery. Column tests treating AnMBR permeate were performed over five ion exchange cycles; Dow‐HFO‐Cu resin exchange capacities ranged from 1.6 to 2.8 mg PO4‐P/g dry media. A maximum of 94% of the removed phosphate was recovered during regeneration. The rate and extent of regeneration was insensitive to regenerant salt concentrations in the range investigated. Precipitation using a mixture of the spent regeneration brines from the Dow‐HFO‐Cu resin and clinoptilolite columns produced low molar ratios of Mg:NH4:PO4, suggesting that the recovered product was not pure struvite.


Published version. Water Environment Research, Vol. 91, No. 7 (July 2019) : 606-615. DOI. © 2019 Water Environment Federation. Used with permission.

mayer_13187acc.docx (562 kB)
ADA Accessible Version