Document Type


Publication Date



Routledge Taylor & Francis Group

Source Publication

Journal of Environmental Planning and Management

Source ISSN



In the United States, new legislation has given regulatory authorities greater oversight of municipal stormwater management programs. However, estimating the impact of greater oversight on municipal actions is difficult due to the uncertainty in current compliance efforts and their associated costs. This paper seeks to fill this gap through a case study of NPDES stormwater runoff permit reports from municipalities in Southeast Wisconsin. Specifically, this study evaluates the reported actions and expenditures against socioeconomic variables to identify the relationships between cost, socioeconomics, and the best management practices (BMPs) used for compliance. Results indicate that there are distinct differences between municipalities with and without financial and personnel resources, clear high- and low-cost BMPs, and large variation in the practices municipalities implement to meet regulatory requirements. Furthermore, results suggest that regulators should take a flexible and pragmatic approach that considers individual municipal constraints and limitations when exercising greater regulatory authority.


Accepted version. Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Vol. 62, No. 13 (November 2019): 2273-2294. DOI. © 2019 Routledge Taylor & Francis Group. Used with permission.

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