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Effective broad-spectrum antiviral treatments are in dire need as disinfectants and therapeutic alternatives. One such method of disinfection is photodynamic inactivation, which involves the production of reactive oxygen species from dissolved oxygen in response to light-stimulated photosensitizers. This study evaluated the efficacy of functionalized porphyrin compounds for photodynamic inactivation of bacteriophages as human virus surrogates. A blue-light light emitting diode (LED) lamp was used to activate porphyrin compounds in aqueous solution (phosphate buffer). The DNA bacteriophages ΦX174 and P22 were more resistant to porphyrin TMPyP photodynamic inactivation than RNA bacteriophage fr, with increasing rates of inactivation in the order: ΦX174 << P22 << fr. Bacteriophage ΦX174 was therefore considered a resistant virus suitable for the evaluation of three additional porphyrins. These porphyrins were synthesized from TMPyP by inclusion of a central palladium ion (PdT4) and/or the addition of a hydrophobic C14 chain (PdC14 or C14). While the inactivation rate of bacteriophage ΦX174 via TMPyP was similar to previous reports of resistant viruses, ΦX174 inactivation increased by a factor of approximately 2.5 using the metalloporphyrins PdT4 and PdC14. The order of porphyrin effectiveness was TMPyP < C14 < PdT4 < PdC14, indicating that both Pd2+ ligation and C14 functionalization aided virus inactivation.


Published version. Viruses, Vol. 13, No. 3 (March 2021): 530. DOI. This article is © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( Used with permission.

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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

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