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AWWA Water Science

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DOI: 10.1002/aws2.1249


Water treatment technologies are needed that can convert per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) into inorganic products (e.g., CO2, F) that are less toxic than parent PFAS compounds. Research on electrochemical treatment processes such as electrocoagulation and electrooxidation has demonstrated proof-of-concept PFAS removal and destruction. However, research has primarily been conducted in laboratory matrices that are electrochemically favorable (e.g., high initial PFAS concentration [μg/L–mg/L], high conductivity, and absence of oxidant scavengers). Electrochemical treatment is also a promising technology for treating PFAS in water treatment residuals from nondestructive technologies (e.g., ion exchange, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis). Future electrochemical PFAS treatment research should focus on environmentally relevant PFAS concentrations (i.e., ng/L), matrix conductivity, natural organic matter impacts, short-chain PFAS removal, transformation products analysis, and systems-level analysis for cost evaluation.


Accepted version. AWWA Water Science, Vol. 3, No. 5 (September/October 2021). DOI. © 2021 The Authors, published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Water Works Association. Used with permission.

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

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