Document Type


Publication Date




Source Publication

Automation in Construction

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Original Item ID

DOI: 10.1016/j.autcon.2010.09.015


A common and extended Petri net simulation framework for virtual construction of earthmoving operations is developed to simulate dynamic changes of workflow and information flow in the earthmoving construction process and illustrate the constraint relationship between various operational equipment and construction restrictions. The proposed framework considers factors that influence earthmoving operations including randomness of construction activities, individual preference of equipment scheduling, and constraint relationship between equipment and construction environment. With the given equipment availability and project indirect cost, the framework can predict construction situation, equipment utilization rate, estimated duration and cost to achieve visualized and intelligent scheduling of virtual construction process in earthmoving operations. The simulation process is conducted on the CPNTools platform. The data required by the research were collected on-site in an actual case. The randomness of construction activities in earthmoving operations and main factors influencing construction are simulated. The sensitivity analysis for the model is carried out. The study will provide technical support and a management basis for equipment scheduling of earthmoving operations.


Accepted version. Automation in Construction, Vol. 20, No. 2 (March 2011): 181-188. DOI. © 2011 Elsevier. Used with permission.

Yong Bai was affiliated with University of Kansas at the time of publication.

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