Document Type


Publication Date



Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)

Source Publication

IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society

Source ISSN


Original Item ID

DOI: 10.1109/TTS.2022.3202323


Security is a fundamental human requirement. We desire the security of our person against injury, security of our capability to provide for our families, security of income linked to needs (food, water, clothing, and shelter), and much more. Most also hope for security of a way of life that is fulfilling and pleasant and peaceful [1] . In 2003, Alkire [2] defined “human security” as: “[t]he objective … to safeguard the vital core of all human lives from critical pervasive threats, in a way that is consistent with long-term human fulfillment.” Today most of the world’s population is highly dependent, even for basic needs, on large technological systems. According to the Oxford Dictionary , dependence can be defined as: “the state of relying on or being controlled by someone or something else.” In the context of technological systems, dependence may imply an unwanted consequence of nonavailability. Dependence may also be deliberately misapplied to create some level of coercion toward some other action [3] . For instance, in drug abuse, we can say that there is an overreliance on a dependency that leads to addiction. In the realm of technology systems, as they are increasingly becoming a part of everyday life, dependencies can have major consequences. Thus, an emphasis on “security” seems highly relevant for a journal devoted to considering the effects of technology on society in all its facets.


Accepted version. IEEE Transactions on Technology and Society, Vol. 3, No. 3 (September 2022): 155-162. DOI. © Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Used with permission.

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